Life Span

For most humans, it comes as a natural instinct or it comes as second-nature for them briefly to ponder questions about the origins of life, the meaning of life, mortality, immortality, longevity, life span, and life expectancy. Throughout the ages, scientists, researchers, statisticians, lay persons, pundits, scholars, experts, philosophers, academicians, politicians, theologians, and so forth, have sought to shed light on all of these kinds of ponderings.

Most humans, at one point or another in life, also have wondered about the year, date, hour, and circumstances surrounding their own deaths. All living things on Earth have a termination date. A miracle of life is birth, and a paradox of life is death. Scientists also have concluded that the Earth itself has a naturally occurring end date—as opposed to an entirely different question of an end date for life on Earth caused by human activities. Scientists think that the Earth's end date will occur at some point far, far into the future when the Sun runs out of energy and ceases to shine anymore.

Of course, there are some humans who contend that an afterlife of immortality exists or that immortal reincarnation exists after death, but the objective of this page is not to engage in a discussion or a debate about religious faiths. Instead, the objective of this page is to briefly review the longevity or endurance of different life forms on Earth. This page is devoted to looking at the life span of living things, in general, and the life span of humans, in particular, preceding their demise.

Of course, numerous factors or variables affect how long any organism will live. Some of these factors are based on genetics (for example, susceptibility to inheriting a certain kind of devastating or life-threatening disease). Other factors are based on the environment (for example, becoming involved in a fatal accident; being born in a country with the scarce availability of food, clean water, healthcare facilities, and sanitation facilities; becoming a fatal prey to another life form such as, say, a deer being hunted and eaten by a fox). This page does not individually take these kinds of externalities or extenuating circumstances into consideration. Instead, it takes a more broad-based or a more general look at the typical life span of various organisms without the intervention of special circumstances.

There are several ways to view longevity. The preferred way is look at the average number of years that a given type of organism can be expected to live, which is the life expectancy measure. For instance, based on the USA Census Bureau's research, as of 2016, the average human life span has been determined to be roughly 72.5 years. (See the human life expectancy table below.)

A second way to view longevity is to look at the maximum number of years that a given type of organism has been known to live, which is akin to a ceiling on life for that type of organism. For example, Jeanne Calment of France (born on 21 February 1875 and died on 4 August 1997) is the oldest "officially verified" human to have ever lived. She lived to be 122 years old. So, at the present point in time, the absolute maximum number of years or the ceiling on life for human beings is 122 years. As of 2016, no human can expect to live for more than 122 years.

When it comes to humans alone, notice the wide gap between the average human life span of 72.5 years and the maximum human life span of 122 years. Life for most humans comes to an end closer to the average (of 72.5) rather than the maximum (of 122) years, which is why the average or life expectancy gauge is the preferred gauge to be used when measuring longevity. In other words, most members of any given population tend to conform to the average instead of the maximum.

The Origins of Life on Earth

It is not my intent on this page to engage in a debate about creation versus evolution or a debate about science versus religion. The topic of science versus religion can be very controversial and can be very sensitive for some members of civil society. But, for as long as humans have existed, lay persons, pundits, scholars, experts, philosophers, scientists, academicians, politicians, theologians, and so forth, have pondered and debated the origins and meaning of life. To be sure, at times these debates and disagreements have become so heated to the point of becoming violent and even to the point of becoming murderous, which should never happen on a civilized planet Earth. The truth of the matter about the origins and meaning of life is this: Nobody on Earth really knows the answers to these kinds of metaphysical topics with 100% certainty. There are many humans who profess that the answers have been revealed to them, but they do not really know the answers with 100% certainty.

The only reason why I am mentioning the origins of life here is to give context or background to the diversity of life on Earth. I also must interject that I am a staunch proponent of the scientific educational method. Most scientists estimate that planet Earth is about 4.5 billion years old. Most scientists also think that the very first macroscopic, multicellular life forms could have emerged in Earth's oceans as far back as 600 million years ago. Based on the recorded observations of scientific researchers, based on the application of different scientific techniques of discovery (such as radiometric dating), and based on the fossil record, the next graphic illustrates the manner in which most scientists posit or theorize the pageantry of life unfolded on Earth:

geologic time spiral


The reader should keep in mind that the scientific perspective is but one perspective on the origins of life. There are various—and often competing—religious perspectives concerning metaphysical topics such as the origins of the Universe, the origins of Earth, the origins of life on Earth, the meaning of life, the fate of the Earth (including the fate of Earth's diverse life forms), and the fate of Universe.

The Diversity of Life on Earth

Within the field of scientific investigation and discovery, there is an ongoing, robust effort to inventory and catalog all living organisms on Earth. Website such as Catalogue of Life; Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF); Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS); World Biodiversity Database (WBD), Encyclopedia of Life; ARKive; PLANTS; and Tree of Life Web Project (ToL) reflect this ongoing, robust effort.

With its seemingly infinite variety, scientists have proceeded to devise several classification schemes to categorize life on Earth. As of 2016, one of the more popularly accepted schemes is the 3-domain/6-kingdom classification scheme. Under the 3-domain/6-kingdom classification scheme, scientists have divided Earth's living organisms into three domains or groups. In turn, these three domains are subdivided into six kingdoms or subgroups.


It is not unusual to see a seven-kingdom classification scheme being used whereby, instead of or in place of the Protista Kingdom, some scholars use the Chromista Kingdom and the Protozoa Kingdom. But, as the next two graphics illustrate, this series of groupings and subgroupings of life forms goes all the way up (the tree) to the species level.

One way that an organism gets classified as belonging to a particular species is if its members can successfully reproduce offsprings. For instance, humans cannot produce offsprings with, say, dolphins, which is one of the reasons why they are two distinctive species within the Animal Kingdom. Humans of different racial backgrounds can successfully produce offsprings with one another, which is why humans are classified as belonging to the same species regardless of race. Of course, some humans contend that some races are superior to other races. To be sure, some humans practically spend their entire adult lives preoccupied with matters of racial, gender, religious, and national superiority/inferiority, which can be quite contentious, divisive, and distracting within the human family. For, in my humble opinion, instead of humans wasting time being preoccupied with things like racial, gender, religious, and national superiority/inferiority, a much wiser use of their time would be a universal, simultaneous, and global devotion to transforming Earth into some type of paradise for all to enjoy each day. The objective of this page, however, is not to engage in a discussion or a debate about genetics versus environment. The focus of this page is on the life span of Earth's living things.

biological classification


taxonomic tree with 3 domains

As the above tree-of-life graphic illustrates, this 3-domain/6-kingdom classification scheme is usually laid out in the format of a tree. The tree format is depicted with branches to signify a grouping of related or similar life forms on Earth such that the grouping resembles the picture of a tree with branches and leaves. (See also the TimeTree website, which presents a more elaborate classification scheme.)

The Life Span of Living Things on Earth

Almost all humans would like to keep on living in good mental and physical health forever, but there is a limit to the amount of time that each life form has to be alive. Except plants, in much the same sense that it is very unfortunate that life forms must devour one another for food to stay alive, it is very unfortunate for the living that the nature of life on Earth is such that it does not continue forever. Sooner or later, all life forms will receive that fateful visit from Father Time. When life's hourglass becomes expended, then death is inevitable. For some life forms, death comes sooner in total elapsed time after birth, that is, in a matter of a few weeks, months, or years. For other life forms, death comes later in total elapsed time after birth, that is, in a matter of a few decades, centuries, or millennia.

Although I most probably will be shown to be incorrect for making this statement, to the best of my knowledge, there does not exist a comprehensive database that singularly lists the maximum and average life spans of all life forms on Earth. As I mentioned above, databases do exist that attempt to catalog the whole of life of Earth, but the life span of those various life forms is often omitted from these databases. Information about the life span of organisms generally is scattered all over the place in various documents or in various tables and databases. The reliability of the life span data contained in these various tables is not always well-documented.

The AnAge database is one exception to this scarcity of comprehensive data on life spans. One of the weaknesses or drawbacks of the AnAge database is that it focuses on the life span of organisms within the Animal Kingdom. Of the six kingdoms, the AnAge database primarily focuses on the maximum life spans of living things that have been classified as belonging to the Animal Kingdom.

Due to convenience but primarily due to a lack of readily available and reliable data, this page uses the maximum life span data from the AnAge database to list the top and bottom 20 life spans of living things on Earth. Without further ado, here is the list of the top and bottom 20 life spans of living things on Earth.

Index Common name Link Maximum longevity (years) Domain Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species
Longest Life Spans (Top 20)
L01 Hexactinellid sponge Link 15,000 Eukarya Animalia Porifera Hexactinellida Lyssacinosida Rossellidae Scolymastra joubini
L02 Great Basin bristlecone pine Link 4,713 Eukarya Plantae Pinophyta Pinopsida Pinales Pinaceae Pinus longaeva
L03 Epibenthic sponge Link 1,550 Eukarya Animalia Porifera Demospongiae Spirophorida Tetillidae Cinachyra antarctica
L04 Ocean quahog clam Link 507 Eukarya Animalia Mollusca Bivalvia Veneroida Arcticidae Arctica islandica
L05 Bowhead whale Link 211 Eukarya Animalia Chordata Mammalia Cetacea Balaenidae Balaena mysticetus
L06 Rougheye rockfish Link 205 Eukarya Animalia Chordata Actinopterygii Scorpaeniformes Scorpaenidae Sebastes aleutianus
L07 Red sea urchin Link 200 Eukarya Animalia Echinodermata Echinoidea Echinoida Strongylocentrotidae Strongylocentrotus franciscanus
L08 Galapagos tortoise Link 177 Eukarya Animalia Chordata Reptilia Testudines Testudinidae Geochelone nigra
L09 Shortraker rockfish Link 157 Eukarya Animalia Chordata Actinopterygii Scorpaeniformes Scorpaenidae Sebastes borealis
L10 Aldabra tortoise Link 152 Eukarya Animalia Chordata Reptilia Testudines Testudinidae Geochelone gigantea
L11 Lake sturgeon Link 152 Eukarya Animalia Chordata Actinopterygii Acipenseriformes Acipenseridae Acipenser fulvescens
L12 Orange roughy Link 149 Eukarya Animalia Chordata Actinopterygii Beryciformes Trachichthyidae Hoplostethus atlanticus
L13 Warty oreo Link 140 Eukarya Animalia Chordata Actinopterygii Zeiformes Oreosomatidae Allocyttus verrucosus
L14 Eastern box turtle Link 138 Eukarya Animalia Chordata Reptilia Testudines Emydidae Terrapene carolina
L15 Mediterranean spur-thighed tortoise Link 127 Eukarya Animalia Chordata Reptilia Testudines Testudinidae Testudo graeca
L16 Human Link 122.5 Eukarya Animalia Chordata Mammalia Primates Hominidae Homo sapiens
L17 European pond tortoise Link 120 Eukarya Animalia Chordata Reptilia Testudines Emydidae Emys orbicularis
L18 Rasphead rockfish Link 118 Eukarya Animalia Chordata Actinopterygii Scorpaeniformes Scorpaenidae Sebastes ruberrimus
L19 Beluga sturgeon Link 118 Eukarya Animalia Chordata Actinopterygii Acipenseriformes Acipenseridae Huso huso
L20 Tiger rockfish Link 116 Eukarya Animalia Chordata Actinopterygii Scorpaeniformes Scorpaenidae Sebastes nigrocinctus
Shortest Life Spans (Bottom 20)
S01 Baker's yeast Link 0.04 (14.6 days) Bacteria Fungi Ascomycota Saccharomycetes Saccharomycetales Saccharomycetaceae Saccharomyces cerevisiae
S02 Pygmy goby Link 0.16 (58.4 days) Eukarya Animalia Chordata Actinopterygii Perciformes Gobiidae Eviota sigillata
S03 Roundworm Link 0.16 (58.4 days) Eukarya Animalia Nematoda Chromadorea Rhabditida Rhabditidae Caenorhabditis elegans
S04 Fruit fly Link 0.3 (109.5 days) Eukarya Animalia Arthropoda Insecta Diptera Drosophilidae Drosophila melanogaster
S05 Labord's chameleon Link 0.4 (146 days) Eukarya Animalia Chordata Reptilia Squamata Chamaeleonidae Furcifer labordi
S06 Squinting bush brown Link 0.5 (182.5 days) Eukarya Animalia Arthropoda Insecta Lepidoptera Nymphalidae Bicyclus anynana
S07 Kilombero Link 0.8 (292 days) Eukarya Animalia Chordata Actinopterygii Cyprinodontiformes Aplocheilidae Nothobranchius kilomberoensis
S08 Black-stripe minnow Link 1 (365 days) Eukarya Animalia Chordata Actinopterygii Osmeriformes Galaxiidae Galaxiella nigrostriata
S09 Tidewater goby Link 1 Eukarya Animalia Chordata Actinopterygii Perciformes Gobiidae Eucyclogobius newberryi
S10 Crystal goby Link 1 Eukarya Animalia Chordata Actinopterygii Perciformes Gobiidae Crystallogobius linearis
S11 Code goby Link 1 Eukarya Animalia Chordata Actinopterygii Perciformes Gobiidae Gobiosoma robustum
S12 Chubby flashlightfish Link 1 Eukarya Animalia Chordata Actinopterygii Myctophiformes Myctophidae Electrona risso
S13 Brauer's bristlemouth Link 1 Eukarya Animalia Chordata Actinopterygii Stomiiformes Gonostomatidae Cyclothone braueri
S14 Dwarf seahorse Link 1 Eukarya Animalia Chordata Actinopterygii Gasterosteiformes Syngnathidae Hippocampus zosterae
S15 Korean sandeel Link 1 Eukarya Animalia Chordata Actinopterygii Gasterosteiformes Hypoptychidae Hypoptychus dybowskii
S16 Gila topminnow Link 1 Eukarya Animalia Chordata Actinopterygii Cyprinodontiformes Poeciliidae Poeciliopsis occidentalis
S17 Blackfin pearlfish Link 1 Eukarya Animalia Chordata Actinopterygii Cyprinodontiformes Aplocheilidae Austrolebias nigripinnis
S18 Cherryfin shiner Link 1 Eukarya Animalia Chordata Actinopterygii Cypriniformes Cyprinidae Lythrurus roseipinnis
S19 Turquoise killifish Link 1.1 Eukarya Animalia Chordata Actinopterygii Cyprinodontiformes Aplocheilidae Nothobranchius furzeri
S20 Beira killifish Link 1.2 Eukarya Animalia Chordata Actinopterygii Cyprinodontiformes Aplocheilidae Nothobranchius kuhntae
Table Credit: AnAge: The Animal Ageing and Longevity Database
How Long Do Animals Live?

From Visually.



According to the above table, the Giant Volcano Sponge has the longest maximum life span of 15,000 years. The Baker's yeast has the shortest maximum life span of about 14.6 days. Although not shown in the above table, the average maximum life span of all living things on Earth is about 24.9 years.

Suffice it to add that even the top and bottom life spans listed in the above table are not without detractors. For instance, there are a few organisms on Earth that, essentially, are thought to be immortal. Based on existing knowledge, for instance, certain species of jellyfish and Hydra appear to have life spans that never come to an end (that is, when left in isolation without any intervening factors). It should be noted that even these so-called immortal life forms can die as a result of, say, being devoured by another life form for food, becoming infected with a fatal disease, or by its inability to adapt to a radically changed environment. For all living things on Earth, without the presence of the Sun, oxygen, or water, they most certainly are doomed to die. In other cases, humans simply do not possess enough information about certain species to make a determination about their life spans. The charting of life spans of living organisms remains a work in progress. And, for life above ground as opposed to life underwater, certain species of trees seem to have the longest life spans among all living things.

Watch (Biological Immortality The Hydra)

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The Human Life Span

Except perhaps a very tiny minority of humans who might be experiencing some sort of adverse psychological malfunction, severe mental imbalance, debilitating physical breakdown, or extreme psycho-ideological fanaticism, it is very seldom do you hear of the Earth's 7 billion human inhabitants expressing a readiness and a willingness to die. Most so-called "normal" or "rational" humans choose living over dying.

As stated above, Jeanne Calment of France lived to be 122 years old. Much like an Olympics record holder, Jeanne Calment currently holds the record for being the oldest "officially verified" human to have ever lived on Earth. Using the table below, how does your longevity compare to Jeanne's?

Jeanne Calment: Oldest Verified Human to Have Ever Lived at 122 years Old
Your Age % of Jeanne's Age
122 Years Old Right Now 100%
120 Years Old Right Now 98%
110 Years Old Right Now 90%
100 Years Old Right Now 82%
90 Years Old Right Now 74%
80 Years Old Right Now 66%
70 Years Old Right Now 57%
60 Years Old Right Now 49%
50 Years Old Right Now 41%
40 Years Old Right Now 33%
30 Years Old Right Now 25%
20 Years Old Right Now 16%
10 Years Old Right Now 8%

The human life expectancy data in the table below was derived from a database maintained by the U.S. Census Bureau. The human life expectancy data in the table below shows that, when all humans are taken together based on the countries surveyed, on average, the human life span extends to roughly 72.5 years as of 2016. It shows that, on average, males can expect to live for roughly 70 years. Females can expect to live for roughly 75 years. The table shows that the residents of Monaco have the longest average life expectancy of roughly 89.5 years. The residents of Chad have the shortest average life expectancy of roughly 50.2 years.

Count Country Region As of Year Life expectancy, both sexes (years) Life expectancy, male (years) Life expectancy, female (years)
1 Afghanistan Asia, Southern 2016 51.3 49.9 52.7
2 Albania Europe, Southern 2016 78.3 75.7 81.2
3 Algeria Africa, Northern 2016 76.8 75.5 78.2
4 American Samoa Polynesia, Oceania 2016 75.4 72.4 78.5
5 Andorra Europe, Southern 2016 82.8 80.6 85.1
6 Angola Africa, Middle 2016 56.0 54.8 57.2
7 Anguilla Caribbean, Americas 2016 81.4 78.8 84.1
8 Antigua and Barbuda Caribbean, Americas 2016 76.5 74.4 78.8
9 Argentina America, South 2016 77.9 74.6 81.3
10 Armenia Asia, Western 2016 74.6 71.4 78.3
11 Aruba Caribbean, Americas 2016 76.8 73.7 79.9
12 Australia Australia and New Zealand, Oceania 2016 82.2 79.8 84.8
13 Austria Europe, Western 2016 81.5 78.9 84.3
14 Azerbaijan Asia, Western 2016 72.5 69.5 75.8
15 Bahamas, The Caribbean, Americas 2016 72.4 70.0 74.8
16 Bahrain Asia, Western 2016 78.9 76.7 81.1
17 Bangladesh Asia, Southern 2016 71.2 69.3 73.3
18 Barbados Caribbean, Americas 2016 75.3 73.0 77.7
19 Belarus Europe, Eastern 2016 72.7 67.2 78.6
20 Belgium Europe, Western 2016 81.0 78.4 83.7
21 Belize America, Central 2016 68.7 67.2 70.4
22 Benin Africa, Western 2016 61.9 60.5 63.3
23 Bermuda America, North 2016 81.3 78.1 84.5
24 Bhutan Asia, Southern 2016 70.1 69.1 71.1
25 Bolivia America, South 2016 69.2 66.4 72.1
26 Bosnia and Herzegovina Europe, Southern 2016 76.7 73.7 80.0
27 Botswana Africa, Southern 2016 54.5 56.3 52.6
28 Brazil America, South 2016 73.8 70.2 77.5
29 Brunei Asia, South-Eastern 2016 77.2 74.8 79.6
30 Bulgaria Europe, Eastern 2016 74.5 71.2 78.0
31 Burkina Faso Africa, Western 2016 55.5 53.4 57.6
32 Burma (Myanmar) Asia, South-Eastern 2016 66.6 64.2 69.2
33 Burundi Africa, Eastern 2016 60.5 58.8 62.3
34 Cabo Verde Africa, Western 2016 72.1 69.8 74.5
35 Cambodia Asia, South-Eastern 2016 64.5 62.0 67.1
36 Cameroon Africa, Middle 2016 58.5 57.1 59.9
37 Canada America, North 2016 81.9 79.2 84.6
38 Cayman Islands Caribbean, Americas 2016 81.2 78.5 84.0
39 Central African Republic Africa, Middle 2016 52.3 51.0 53.7
40 Chad Africa, Middle 2016 50.2 49.0 51.5
41 Chile America, South 2016 78.8 75.7 81.9
42 China Asia, Eastern 2016 75.5 73.5 77.9
43 Colombia America, South 2016 75.7 72.6 79.0
44 Comoros Africa, Eastern 2016 64.2 61.9 66.6
45 Congo, Republic of (Brazzaville) Africa, Middle 2016 59.3 58.1 60.6
46 Congo, Democratic Republic of (Kinshasa) Zaire Africa, Middle 2016 57.3 55.8 58.9
47 Cook Islands Polynesia, Oceania 2016 75.8 73.0 78.8
48 Costa Rica America, Central 2016 78.6 75.9 81.4
49 Cote d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast) Africa, Western 2016 58.7 57.5 59.9
50 Croatia Europe, Southern 2016 76.8 73.2 80.6
51 Cuba Caribbean, Americas 2016 78.6 76.2 81.0
52 Curacao Caribbean, Americas 2016 78.3 76.0 80.7
53 Cyprus Asia, Western 2016 78.7 75.8 81.6
54 Czech Republic Europe, Eastern 2016 78.6 75.7 81.8
55 Denmark Europe, Northern 2016 79.4 77.0 82.0
56 Djibouti Africa, Eastern 2016 63.2 60.7 65.8
57 Dominica Caribbean, Americas 2016 77.0 74.0 80.1
58 Dominican Republic Caribbean, Americas 2016 78.1 75.9 80.5
59 Ecuador America, South 2016 76.8 73.8 79.9
60 Egypt Africa, Northern 2016 73.9 71.3 76.7
61 El Salvador America, Central 2016 74.7 71.4 78.1
62 Equatorial Guinea Africa, Middle 2016 64.2 63.1 65.4
63 Eritrea Africa, Eastern 2016 64.1 62.0 66.4
64 Estonia Europe, Northern 2016 76.7 71.9 81.7
65 Ethiopia Africa, Eastern 2016 62.2 59.8 64.7
66 Faroe Islands Europe, Northern 2016 80.4 77.8 83.1
67 Fiji Melanesia, Oceania 2016 72.7 70.0 75.5
68 Finland Europe, Northern 2016 80.9 77.9 84.0
69 France Europe, Western 2016 81.8 78.7 85.1
70 French Polynesia Polynesia, Oceania 2016 77.2 74.9 79.6
71 Gabon Africa, Middle 2016 52.1 51.6 52.5
72 Gambia, The Africa, Western 2016 64.9 62.5 67.3
73 Gaza Strip Asia, Western 2016 75.1 73.3 77.0
74 Georgia Asia, Western 2016 76.2 72.1 80.6
75 Germany Europe, Western 2016 80.7 78.4 83.1
76 Ghana Africa, Western 2016 66.6 64.1 69.1
77 Gibraltar Europe, Southern 2016 79.4 76.6 82.5
78 Greece Europe, Southern 2016 80.5 77.9 83.3
79 Greenland America, North 2016 72.4 69.7 75.2
80 Grenada Caribbean, Americas 2016 74.3 71.7 77.1
81 Guam Micronesia, Oceania 2016 79.1 76.1 82.4
82 Guatemala America, Central 2016 72.3 70.3 74.4
83 Guernsey Europe, Northern 2016 82.5 79.9 85.4
84 Guinea Africa, Western 2016 60.6 59.0 62.2
85 Guinea-Bissau Africa, Western 2016 50.6 48.6 52.7
86 Guyana America, South 2016 68.4 65.4 71.5
87 Haiti Caribbean, Americas 2016 63.8 62.4 65.3
88 Honduras America, Central 2016 71.1 69.5 72.8
89 Hong Kong Asia, Eastern 2016 82.9 80.3 85.8
90 Hungary Europe, Eastern 2016 75.9 72.2 79.8
91 Iceland Europe, Northern 2016 83.0 80.9 85.3
92 India Asia, Southern 2016 68.5 67.3 69.8
93 Indonesia Asia, South-Eastern 2016 72.7 70.1 75.5
94 Iran Asia, Southern 2016 71.4 69.8 73.1
95 Iraq Asia, Western 2016 74.9 72.6 77.2
96 Ireland Europe, Northern 2016 80.8 78.5 83.2
97 Isle of Man Europe, Northern 2016 81.2 79.5 83.0
98 Israel Asia, Western 2016 82.4 80.6 84.4
99 Italy Europe, Southern 2016 82.2 79.6 85.0
100 Jamaica Caribbean, Americas 2016 73.6 72.0 75.3
101 Japan Asia, Eastern 2016 85.0 81.7 88.5
102 Jersey Europe, Northern 2016 81.9 79.4 84.5
103 Jordan Asia, Western 2016 74.6 73.2 76.1
104 Kazakhstan Asia, Central 2016 70.8 65.6 75.7
105 Kenya Africa, Eastern 2016 64.0 62.6 65.5
106 Kiribati Micronesia, Oceania 2016 66.2 63.7 68.8
107 Korea, North Asia, Eastern 2016 70.4 66.6 74.5
108 Korea, South Asia, Eastern 2016 80.3 77.2 83.5
109 Kosovo Europe, Southern 2016 71.6 69.5 73.9
110 Kuwait Asia, Western 2016 78.0 76.6 79.4
111 Kyrgyzstan Asia, Central 2016 70.7 66.5 75.1
112 Laos Asia, South-Eastern 2016 64.3 62.2 66.4
113 Latvia Europe, Northern 2016 74.5 69.9 79.3
114 Lebanon Asia, Western 2016 77.6 76.3 78.9
115 Lesotho Africa, Southern 2016 53.0 52.9 53.1
116 Liberia Africa, Western 2016 59.0 57.3 60.8
117 Libya Africa, Northern 2016 76.5 74.7 78.3
118 Liechtenstein Europe, Western 2016 81.9 79.7 84.6
119 Lithuania Europe, Northern 2016 74.9 69.5 80.6
120 Luxembourg Europe, Western 2016 82.3 79.8 84.9
121 Macau Asia, Eastern 2016 84.5 81.6 87.6
122 Macedonia Europe, Southern 2016 76.2 73.6 79.0
123 Madagascar Africa, Eastern 2016 65.9 64.4 67.4
124 Malawi Africa, Eastern 2016 61.2 59.2 63.2
125 Malaysia Asia, South-Eastern 2016 75.0 72.2 78.0
126 Maldives Asia, Southern 2016 75.6 73.3 78.0
127 Mali Africa, Western 2016 55.8 53.9 57.7
128 Malta Europe, Southern 2016 80.4 78.0 82.8
129 Marshall Islands Micronesia, Oceania 2016 73.1 70.9 75.4
130 Mauritania Africa, Western 2016 63.0 60.7 65.4
131 Mauritius Africa, Eastern 2016 75.6 72.2 79.2
132 Mexico America, Central 2016 75.9 73.1 78.8
133 Micronesia, Federated States of Micronesia, Oceania 2016 72.9 70.8 75.0
134 Moldova Europe, Eastern 2016 70.7 66.9 74.8
135 Monaco Europe, Western 2016 89.5 85.6 93.5
136 Mongolia Asia, Eastern 2016 69.6 65.4 74.1
137 Montenegro Europe, Southern 2016 78.6 75.6 81.8
138 Montserrat Caribbean, Americas 2016 74.4 75.8 72.9
139 Morocco Africa, Northern 2016 76.9 73.8 80.1
140 Mozambique Africa, Eastern 2016 53.3 52.6 54.1
141 Namibia Africa, Southern 2016 51.4 51.9 50.9
142 Nauru Micronesia, Oceania 2016 67.1 63.0 70.5
143 Nepal Asia, Southern 2016 67.9 66.5 69.3
144 Netherlands Europe, Western 2016 81.3 79.2 83.6
145 New Caledonia Melanesia, Oceania 2016 77.7 73.7 81.9
146 New Zealand Australia and New Zealand, Oceania 2016 81.2 79.1 83.3
147 Nicaragua America, Central 2016 73.2 71.1 75.5
148 Niger Africa, Western 2016 55.5 54.3 56.8
149 Nigeria Africa, Western 2016 53.4 52.4 54.5
150 Northern Mariana Islands Micronesia, Oceania 2016 78.0 75.3 80.8
151 Norway Europe, Northern 2016 81.8 79.8 83.9
152 Oman Asia, Western 2016 75.5 73.5 77.5
153 Pakistan Asia, Southern 2016 67.7 65.8 69.8
154 Palau Micronesia, Oceania 2016 73.1 69.9 76.5
155 Panama America, Central 2016 78.6 75.8 81.6
156 Papua New Guinea Melanesia, Oceania 2016 67.2 65.0 69.5
157 Paraguay America, South 2016 77.2 74.5 80.0
158 Peru America, South 2016 73.7 71.7 75.9
159 Philippines Asia, South-Eastern 2016 69.2 65.7 72.9
160 Poland Europe, Eastern 2016 77.6 73.7 81.7
161 Portugal Europe, Southern 2016 79.3 76.1 82.8
162 Puerto Rico Caribbean, Americas 2016 79.4 75.8 83.1
163 Qatar Asia, Western 2016 78.7 76.7 80.8
164 Romania Europe, Eastern 2016 75.1 71.7 78.8
165 Russia Europe, Eastern 2016 70.8 65.0 76.8
166 Rwanda Africa, Eastern 2016 60.1 58.5 61.7
167 Saint Barthelemy Caribbean, Americas 2016 79.6 76.5 82.9
168 Saint Helena Africa, Western 2016 79.5 76.6 82.6
169 Saint Kitts and Nevis Caribbean, Americas 2016 75.7 73.3 78.2
170 Saint Lucia Caribbean, Americas 2016 77.8 75.0 80.7
171 Saint Martin Caribbean, Americas 2016 79.6 76.5 82.9
172 Saint Pierre and Miquelon America, North 2016 80.5 78.2 83.0
173 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Caribbean, Americas 2016 75.3 73.3 77.4
174 Samoa Polynesia, Oceania 2016 73.7 70.8 76.8
175 San Marino Europe, Southern 2016 83.3 80.7 86.1
176 Sao Tome and Principe Africa, Middle 2016 64.9 63.6 66.3
177 Saudi Arabia Asia, Western 2016 75.3 73.2 77.4
178 Senegal Africa, Western 2016 61.7 59.7 63.8
179 Serbia Europe, Southern 2016 75.5 72.6 78.5
180 Seychelles Africa, Eastern 2016 74.7 70.2 79.4
181 Sierra Leone Africa, Western 2016 58.2 55.6 60.9
182 Singapore Asia, South-Eastern 2016 85.0 82.3 87.8
183 Sint Maarten Caribbean, Americas 2016 78.1 75.8 80.6
184 Slovakia Europe, Eastern 2016 77.1 73.5 80.9
185 Slovenia Europe, Southern 2016 78.2 74.6 82.0
186 Solomon Islands Melanesia, Oceania 2016 75.3 72.7 78.1
187 Somalia Africa, Eastern 2016 52.4 50.3 54.5
188 South Africa Africa, Southern 2016 63.1 61.6 64.6
189 South Sudan Africa, Eastern 2016 61.2 59.7 62.7
190 Spain Europe, Southern 2016 81.7 78.7 84.9
191 Sri Lanka Asia, Southern 2016 76.8 73.3 80.4
192 Sudan Africa, Northern 2016 64.1 62.0 66.3
193 Suriname America, South 2016 72.2 69.8 74.8
194 Swaziland Africa, Southern 2016 51.6 52.2 51.0
195 Sweden Europe, Northern 2016 82.1 80.2 84.1
196 Switzerland Europe, Western 2016 82.6 80.3 85.0
197 Syria Asia, Western 2016 74.9 72.5 77.4
198 Taiwan Asia, Eastern 2016 80.1 77.0 83.5
199 Tajikistan Asia, Central 2016 67.7 64.6 71.0
200 Tanzania Africa, Eastern 2016 62.2 60.8 63.6
201 Thailand Asia, South-Eastern 2016 74.7 71.5 78.0
202 Timor-Leste (East Timor) Asia, South-Eastern 2016 68.1 66.5 69.7
203 Togo Africa, Western 2016 65.0 62.3 67.7
204 Tonga Polynesia, Oceania 2016 76.2 74.7 77.8
205 Trinidad and Tobago Caribbean, Americas 2016 72.9 69.9 75.9
206 Tunisia Africa, Northern 2016 76.1 74.0 78.4
207 Turkey Asia, Western 2016 74.8 72.5 77.3
208 Turkmenistan Asia, Central 2016 70.1 67.1 73.3
209 Turks and Caicos Islands Caribbean, Americas 2016 79.8 77.1 82.7
210 Tuvalu Polynesia, Oceania 2016 66.5 64.3 68.8
211 Uganda Africa, Eastern 2016 55.4 54.0 56.9
212 Ukraine Europe, Eastern 2016 71.8 67.1 76.9
213 United Arab Emirates Asia, Western 2016 77.5 74.8 80.2
214 United Kingdom Europe, Northern 2016 80.7 78.5 83.0
215 United States America, North 2016 79.8 77.5 82.1
216 Uruguay America, South 2016 77.2 74.1 80.5
217 Uzbekistan Asia, Central 2016 73.8 70.7 77.0
218 Vanuatu Melanesia, Oceania 2016 73.4 71.8 75.1
219 Venezuela America, South 2016 74.7 71.5 78.0
220 Vietnam Asia, South-Eastern 2016 73.4 70.9 76.2
221 Virgin Islands, British Caribbean, Americas 2016 78.6 77.2 80.1
222 Virgin Islands, U.S. Caribbean, Americas 2016 80.0 77.0 83.2
223 Wallis and Futuna Polynesia, Oceania 2016 79.7 76.7 82.8
224 West Bank Asia, Western 2016 76.1 74.0 78.4
225 Western Sahara Africa, Northern 2016 63.0 60.7 65.4
226 Yemen Asia, Western 2016 65.5 63.4 67.8
227 Zambia Africa, Eastern 2016 52.5 50.8 54.1
228 Zimbabwe Africa, Eastern 2016 58.0 57.3 58.7
229 World World 2016 72.5 70.0 75.0
Table Credit: International Programs - Information Gateway - U.S. Census Bureau
High Resolution Graphic

Generally speaking, humans tend to view themselves as being "special" creatures relative to the other life forms on Earth. Granted, humans have erected an elaborate artificial world within the confines of the natural world. Granted, humans have made great strides in science and technology such as unraveling how life's genome works, unraveling the molecular nature of being, launching spacecrafts on journeys to the stars, and so forth. Granted, many humans live luxurious, pampered lifestyles relative to the oftentimes harsh struggle for survival experienced by most of the Earth's other life forms. Even within the human family, in terms of enjoying a high quality of life, granted, some humans are a lot more fortunate than others. But, when you get right down to it, humans are no different from any of the other living things on Earth. That is to say, humans, too, undergo the same phases of birth, growth, maturation, reproduction, decline, and death as do the Earth's other life forms. Humans, too, require the Sun, air, water, and food to survive as do the Earth's other life forms. For the period of elapsed time between the birth and death phases of life, all living things have to obtain food and water (and shelter) to survive whether it entails working, scavenging, or preying to obtain these things.

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A Tool to Explore the Variety of Life on Earth

Finally, courtesy of Species 2000 in conjunction with the above-mentioned Catalogue of Life website, here's a tool for you to conveniently begin exploring the variety of life on Earth. Enjoy exploring.



Watch (Ronnie Laws, Every Generation)


Watch (Hubert Laws, Life Cycles)
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